Binge Eating Disorder is characterised by regular episodes of binge eating. Unlike BN, a person with BED will not use compensatory behaviours, such as self-induced vomiting or over-exercising after binge eating. Many people with Binge Eating Disorder are overweight or obese.
The reasons for developing BED will differ from person to person. Known causes include genetic predisposition and a combination of environmental, social and cultural factors. BED can occur in people of all ages and genders, across all socioeconomic groups, and from any cultural background. Large population studies suggest that equal numbers of males and females experience BED.
What is binge eating?
Binge eating involves two key features:
- Eating a very large amount of food within a relatively short period of time (e.g. within two hours)
- Feeling a sense of loss of control while eating (e.g. feeling unable to stop yourself from eating)
Defining Binge Eating Disorder
Frequent episodes of binge eating
A person with BED will repeatedly engage in binge eating episodes where they eat a large amount of food in a short period of time. During these episodes they will feel a loss of control over their eating and may not be able to stop even if they want to.
A person with BED will often have a range of identifiable eating habits. These can include eating very quickly, eating when they are not physically hungry and continuing to eat even when they are full, to the point that they feel uncomfortable.
Feelings around food
Feelings of guilt and shame are highly prevalent in people with BED. People with BED often feel guilty or ashamed about the amount, and the way they eat during a binge eating episode. Binge eating often occurs at times of stress, anger, boredom or distress. At such times, binge eating is used as a way to cope with challenging emotions.
Behaviours around food
Because of their feelings around food, people with BED are often very secretive about their eating habits and choose to eat alone.
What are the warning signs of Binge Eating Disorder?
Having awareness about BED and its warning signs and symptoms can make a marked difference to the severity and duration of the illness. Seeking help at the first warning sign is much more effective than waiting until the illness is in full swing. If you or someone you know is exhibiting some or a combination of these signs it is vital to seek help and support as soon as possible.
The warning signs of BED can be physical, psychological and behavioural. It is possible for someone with BED to display a combination of these symptoms.
- Feeling tired and not sleeping well
- Feeling bloated, constipated or developing intolerances to food
- Preoccupation with eating, food, body shape and weight
- Extreme body dissatisfaction and shame about their appearance
- Feelings of extreme distress, sadness, anxiety and guilt during and after a binge episode
- Low self esteem
- Increased sensitivity to comments relating to food, weight, body shape, exercise
- Depression, anxiety or irritability
- Evidence of binge eating (e.g. disappearance or hoarding of food)
- Secretive behaviour relating to food (e.g. hiding food and food wrappers around the house)
- Evading questions about eating and weight
- Increased isolation and withdrawal from activities previously enjoyed
- Erratic behaviour (e.g. shoplifting food or spending large amounts of money on food)
- Self harm, substance abuse or suicide attempts
What are the risks associated with Binge Eating Disorder?
The risks associated with BED are severe. People with BED may experience:
- Osteoarthritis - a painful form of degenerative arthritis in which a person’s joints degrade in quality and can lead to loss of cartilage
- Chronic kidney problems or kidney failure
- High blood pressure and/or high cholesterol leading to increased risk of stroke, diabetes and heart disease
Therapies to be considered for the treatment of BED include:
- Psychological Treatments
- Evidence-based self-help programs
- Cognitive behavioural therapy for Binge Eating Disorder
- Interpersonal psychotherapy
- Dialectical behaviour therapy
Antidepressants (SSRIs) can also be used in treating those with BED.
If the person with the eating disorder also presents with symptoms of obesity, this will need to be managed simultaneously using the appropriate treatment.
Find out more about specific treatment approaches.